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Monday, Oct. 29th 2012

Combined Pesticide Exposure Affects Bumblebee Colonies

Story by:

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

Individual worker behavior and colony success are both affected when bees are exposed to a combination of pesticides, according to research conducted by Dr. Richard Gill and Dr. Nigel Raine at the University of London.

This research, published in the journal Nature, investigated social bumblebee colonies which rely on the collective performance of numerous individual worker bees. It showed that chronic exposure to two commonly-used pesticides (a neonicotinoid and a pyrethroid), at concentrations approximating field-level exposure, impaired natural foraging behavior and increased worker mortality. This led to significant reductions in colony success, and increased rates of colony failure.

Bees are typically exposed to numerous pesticides when collecting pollen and nectar from crops, and this is the first study to examine the potential effects of exposure to a combination of pesticides under realistic field conditions.

“There is an urgent need to understand the reasons behind current bee declines as they are essential pollinators of many agricultural crops and wild flowers,” Raine said. “We rely on these insects to produce most of the food we eat and maintain the landscapes we enjoy.”

Gill added that “Previous studies investigating the possible role of pesticides in current bee declines have focused on honeybees, but it is also crucial that we understand how pesticides affect other bee species.”

This study mimicked realistic scenarios in which 40 early stage bumblebee colonies received four-week exposure to two pesticides that are frequently encountered when foraging on flowering crops: the neonicotinoid ‘Imidacloprid’ and the pyrethroid ‘lambda-cyhalothrin’.

Bees were able to forage in the field providing a realistic behavioral setting, and the foraging behavior of individual workers was recorded using radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging technology.

The researchers found that bees exposed to imidacloprid were less able to forage effectively, particularly when it came to collecting pollen. This meant treated colonies had less food available to them, so could not raise as many new workers. On average, workers leaving the colony then getting lost was 55 percent higher in those receiving imidacloprid than those that were not exposed to pesticides. The results of this study also indicate that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the tendency of bee colonies to fail.

Gill commented that “The novelty of this study is that we show how the sublethal effects of pesticide exposure affects individual bee behavior with serious knock-on consequences for the performance of the colony as a whole.”

Raine added that “Policymakers need to consider the evidence and work together with regulatory bodies to minimize the risk to all bees caused by pesticides, not just honeybees. Currently pesticide usage is approved based on tests looking at single pesticides. However, our evidence shows that the risk of exposure to multiple pesticides needs to be considered, as this can seriously affect colony success.”

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